Posted in new media products & design

Make your product desirable: why emotion matters and how to measure it

 

Why emotion?

Without emotions, your decision-making ability would be impaired. Emotion is always passing judgments, presenting you with immediate information abut the world.

<Emotional Design> by Donald Norman

Because minimal differentiation now exists among the products offered in the technology market, buying decisions are emotion driven

What is emotion?

  • ABC model
    – A: physiological arousal (e.g., heart rate changes)
    – B: behavioral expression (e.g., facial expressions)
    – C: conscious experience, subjective feeling of an emotion
  •  Primary emotions
    – Emotions we feel first, in response to a situation
    – Fear, grief, anger, love, empathy, hope, disguise
  • Secondary emotions
    – Feelings attached to objects, events, and situations
    through learning
    – Based largely on memory (Plutchik, 1980)

General ways of measurement

premo-men
PrEmo Tool

– Words: make some users feel confined

  • Objective
    – Facial expression recognition
    – Eye tracker
    – IRT (Infrared thermography)
    – EEG (Electroencephalogram)
    – ASR (Affective Self Report)

How to construct your emotional measurement tool?

For different product, the measurement tools can be constructed separately in order to measure emotions far more accurately.

At the very beginning, the overall goals of emotional measurement should be clarified.

  1. Create tools that will allow you to capture the emotional component of the UX in your product
  2. Understand what emotions users experience in your product and why
  3. Design and build emotional connections

Then, I’ll show you an example of EM (Emotion Mapping) tool construction for Chinese users of CUHK Mobile.

STEP 1 Literature Review

According to the literature review of emotion theorists such as Plutchik, Desmet, Goleman, Hsu etc., 36 unique basic emotions in Chinese are identified.

  • Positive emotions
1.滿足 2.興奮

3.得意

4.欣賞

5.友善

6.信任

7.幸福

8.希望

9.原諒

10.理解

11.期待

12.成就

13.愉悅

14.驚喜

15.啟發

16.接受 17.感激

18.自豪

  • Negative emotions
1.不滿 2.生氣

3.傷心

4.焦慮

5.仇恨

6.驚嚇

7.蔑視

8.內疚

9.厭煩

10.討厭

11.害怕

12.警惕

13.嫉妒

14.緊張

15.失望

16.懷疑

17.壓力

18.擔心

Tips: You should pick up equal number of positive and negative words to avoid biase.

STEP 2 Conduct focus group or survey

The purpose is let users to select relevant emotions concerning your product.

For focus group, you need to

  • Preparation
    – Choose 6- 8 users of different age, gender …
    – Before the focus group, help them to recall their positive and negative experiences with related products and the emotions experienced
  • During the focus group, ask them to
    – Categorize the emotions that are experienced during the use of product and those that are not
    – Categorize the emotions as either positive or negative
    – Create clusters of related emotions
    – Write a descriptor/description for the emotion
    – Categorize the importance of the emotions
    – Identify their top 5 emotions

For survey, below is logic about how the questionnaire is designed无标题.png

STEP 3 Summarise and construct the EM tool

Based on the survey result, an EM tool consisting 7 emotions is summarised. It includes 3 positive emotions (信任、期待、感激), 3 negative emotions (焦慮、失望、懷疑) and 1 quasi-neutral emotion (接受). The positive and negative emotions are not necessarily opposite.

  • Statistics of positive emotional words
Emotion 信任 理解 期待 接受

感激

Min Value     ( 1 – 5 )

1 1 1 2

2

Max Value     ( 1 – 5 )

3 3 3 2

2

Mean

1.60 2.33 2.33 2.00

2.00

Total Responses

5 3 3 2

4

  • Statistics of negative emotional words
Emotion 不滿 焦慮 懷疑 壓力

失望

Min Value     ( 1 – 5 ) 1 1 1 1

1

Max Value     ( 1 – 5 ) 2 3 3 3

3

Mean

1.17 2.00 2.25 2.00

2.44

Total Responses

6 5 4 3

9

STEP 4 Apply the EM tool across your UX design process

In CUHK Mobile case, the EM tool is applied mainly in the operation tests of CUHK Mobile during contextual interviews. Subjects are asked to assess their agreement to these 7 emotions with a 5-point Likert Scale and explain specific reasons.

Screen Shot 2016-03-25 at 22.37.43.png
Some of the results

Based on the analysis, when redesign the product, emotional connections can be made intentionally – i.e. to avoid 焦慮 (anxiety), to enhance 信任 & 期待 (trust & expectation) etc.

Emotions make you buy
Feelings make you keep
Affection makes you sustain

< end >

Reference

  1. Case Study in Building Emotional Measurement Tools from Microsoft
  2. In-class materials of Creative Design by Augustine 🙂 (COMM 6940 MSc. in New Media)
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